Summary of the IADR Cariology Research, Craniofacial Biology, and Mineralized Tissue Groups Symposium, Iguaçu Falls, Brazil, June 2012: Gene-environment Interactions and Epigenetics in Oral Diseases: Enamel Formation and its Clinical Impact on Tooth Defects, Caries, and Erosion

Adriana Modesto, Ophir Klein, Livia M.A. Tenuta, Raquel F. Gerlach, Alexandre R. Vieira


Characteristics of enamel may influence or modulate individual susceptibility to caries and erosion. These characteristics are defined during development, which is under strict genetic control, but can easily be modified in many ways by environmental factors. In the symposium, translational aspects of embryology, biochemistry, and genetics of amelogenesis were presented. The symposium provided unique insight into how basic sciences integrate with clinically relevant problems. The need for improved understanding of risks at the individual level, taking into consideration both environmental exposures and genetic background, was presented. The symposium was divided into four stepwise and interconnected topics as follows:  1) The Many Faces of Enamel Development; 2) Enamel Pathogenesis: Biochemistry Lessons; 3) Environmental Factors on Enamel Formation; and, 4) Genetic Variation in Enamel Formation Genes.

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