Effects of a novel dye containing toothpaste versus regular fluoridated toothpaste for supragingival biofilm reduction in patients with chronic gingivitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Avita Rath, Chong Jun Ning, Priyadarshini HR, Brandon Nicholas Teo, Naik Hsian Zhen, Ong Wey Yin

Abstract


AIM:To compare the effects of a plaque disclosing toothpaste with a regular fluoridated toothpaste for supragingival biofilm reduction in patients with chronic gingivitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:This study was a randomized controlled trial with a parallel design. Forty patients, both males and females aged 18-25 years with chronic generalized gingivitis (N=40) were randomly allocated to two groups of twenty each (n=20), using lottery method. Participants in the experimental group brushed with a plaque disclosing toothpaste, while participants in the control group brushed with regular fluoridated toothpaste. Clinically, biofilm was measured using Silness & Loe Plaque Index, both at baseline and at follow up visits by two assessors who were blinded to group allocation. Adjunctly, intraoral photographs were taken for Digital Plaque Image Analysis of the remaining dental biofilm in the upper and lower anterior labial tooth surfaces, and calculated based on the area of stained pixels. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Mean plaque scores between the groups were compared using independent sample t-test and p<0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS:Data of all the 40 participants were analyzed as they were no drop outs. No significant differences were found in the mean plaque scores between the two groups (p=0.059) at the end of the study. Similarly, Digital Plaque Image Analysis showed no significant difference in the mean plaque scores between the groups (p= 0.93).

CONCLUSION:This study showed that there are no additional benefits of using a plaque disclosing toothpaste, in enhancing the removal of the supragingival dental biofilm during routine oral hygiene maintenance.

  

 


Keywords


dental biofilm; supragingival; gingivitis; oral hygiene; dentifrice

Full Text:

PDF

References


https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/oral-health. Accessed 15 February, 2018.

Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2017; 390:1211-1259.

Williams MJ. The antibacterial and antiplaque effectiveness of mouthwashes containing cetylpyridinium chloride with and without alcohol in improving gingival health. J Clin Dent. 2011;22(6):179-182.

Jin LJ, Armitage GC, Klinge B, Lang NP, Tonetti M, Williams RC. Global oral health inequalities: task group-periodontal disease. Adv Dent Res. 2011; 23(2): 221–226.

Nazir MA. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. Int J Health Sci . 2017;11(2):72-80.

Baelum V, Van Palenstein HW, Hugoson A, Yee R, Fejerskov O. A global perspective on changes in the burden of caries and periodontitis: implications for dentistry. J Oral Rehab. 2007; 34 (12): 872-906.

Owens J, Addy M, Faulkner J, Lockwood C, Adair R. A short-term clinical study design to investigate the chemical plaque inhibitory properties of mouth rinses when used as adjuncts to toothpastes: applied to chlorhexidine. J Clin Periodontol. 1997; 24(10):732-737.

Pannuti CM, Saraiva MC, Ferraro A, Falsi D, Cai S, Lotufo, RF. Efficacy of a 0,5% chlorhexidine gel on the control of gingivitis in Brazilian mentally handicapped patients. J Clin Periodontol. 2003; 30:573-576.

Palomo F, Wantland L, Sanchez A, DeVizio W, Carter W, Baines E.The MFTB. The importance of oral health education in prevention programs for children. J Bras Odontol Odonto Pediatr .1999; 2(6): 127-131.

Stevens K et al. Evaluation of Plaque Removal Efifcacy of a Novel Dye-Containing Toothpaste: A Clinical Trial. Int J Dent Oral Sci. 2016; 3(1): 185-189.

Bellini HT, Anerud A, Moustafa MH. Disclosing wafers in an oral hygiene instruction program. Odontol Revy. 1974;25:247–253.

Smith RN, Brook AH, Elcock C. The quantification of dental plaque using an image analysis system: Reliability and validation. J Clin Periodontol 2001;28:1158-62.

Söder PO, Jin LJ, Söder B. Computerized planimetric method for clinical plaque measurement. Scand J Dent Res. 1993;101:21-25.

Pretty IA, Edgar WM, Higham SM. A study to assess the efficacy of a new detergent free, whitening dentifrice in vivo using QLF planimetric analysis. Braz Dent J. 2004;197:561-566.

Rustogi KN, Curtis JP, Volpe AR, Kemp JH, McCool JJ, Korn LR Refinement of the Modified Navy Plaque Index to increase plaque scoring efficiency in gumline and interproximal tooth areas. J Clin Dent. 1992;3(C):9-12.

Rosa GM, Elizondo ML. New portable system for dental plaque measurement using a digital single-lens reflex camera and image analysis: Study of reliability and validation. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2015;19:279-284.

World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. J Am Med Assoc. 2013;310(20):2191-2194.

Silness J, Loe H. Periodontal Disease in Pregnancy II. Correlation between Oral Hygiene and Periodontal Condition. Acta Odontol Scand. 1964; 22: 121-135.

Jensen O, Moberg Skold UM, Birkhed D, Gabre P. Self-reported changes in using fluoride toothpaste among older adults in Sweden: An intervention study. Act Odontol Scand. 2015; 73: 48–56.

Marchetti E, Casalena F, Capestro A, Tecco S, Mattei A, Marzo G. Efficacy of two mouthwashes on 3-day supragingival plaque regrowth: a randomized crossover clinical trial. Int J Dent Hyg. 2017;15(1):73-80.

Choo A, Delac DM, Messer LB. Oral hygiene measures and promotion: Review and considerations. Aust Dent J. 2001;46:(3):166-173.

Van der Weijden GA, Hioe KP. A systematic review of the effectiveness of self-performed mechanical plaque removal in adults with gingivitis using a manual toothbrush. J Clin Periodontol. 2005; 32( 6): 214-228.

Otten MPT, Busscher HJ, Abbas F, Van der Mei HC, Van Hoogmoed CG. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients. Clin Oral Invest. 2012;16:1435–1442

Schäfer F, Nicholson JA, Gerritsen N, Wright RL, Gillam DG. The effect of oral care feed-back devices on plaque removal and attitudes towards oral care. Int Dent J. 2003; 53(6): 404-408.

Gallagher IH, Fussell SJ, Cutress TW. Mechanism of action of a two‑tone plaque disclosing agent. J Periodontol.1977; 48: 395‑396.

Tan AE, Wade AB. The role of visual feedback by a disclosing agent in plaque control. J Clin Periodontol. 1980;7(2):140-148.

Ower P. The role of self-administered plaque control in the management of periodontal diseases: I. A review of the evidence. Dent Update. 2003; 30(2): 60-64.

Fasoulas A, Pavlidou E, Petridis D, Mantzorou M, Seroglou K, Giaginis C. Detection of dental plaque with disclosing agents in the context of preventive oral hygiene training programs. Heliyon. 2019;5(7):e02064.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/d3000.2021.117



Copyright (c) 2021 Avita Rath, Chong Jun Ning, Priyadarshini HR, Brandon Nicholas Teo, Naik Hsian Zhen, Ong Wey Yin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.