Is Oral Candida associated with Dental Caries in Children - A Cross Sectional Analysis.


  • Mithun Pai Associate Professor Department of Public Health Dentistry Manipal College of Dental Sciences Mangalore
  • Shweta Yellapurkar Assistant Professor Department of Oral Pathology Manipal College of Dental Sciences Mangalore
  • Srikant Natarajan Professor and Head Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology Manipal College of Dental Sciences Mangalore
  • Ramya Shenoy Associate Professor Department of Public Health Dentistry Manipal College of Dental Sciences Mangalore



Candida, Children, Dental caries, DMFT


BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a world-wide public health issue and is considered the most common of all non-communicable disease. There has been a growing interest in association between oral fungal flora especially candida and dental caries. Hence the aim of the study was to assess the correlation between active caries status and oral candida carriage in children aged twelve years.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study where a multiphase sampling was done and a total of thirty children were selected randomly among children screened previously. Data was collected through clinical oral examinations and structured interviews. The oral rinse technique described by Samaranayake et al. was used for extracting candida spp. The correlation between candida spplevel and caries experience was performed by the Pearsons correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: The mean DMFS and defs scores of the children were 3.70±4.61 and 5.83±5.51 respectively. Significant association with decay scores for deciduous teeth (P<0.05) and defs (p= <0.001) was demonstrated. Candida species was associated highly with caries prevalence and significant positive correlation was found between Candida (CFU/plate) and defs scores (r=0.790) (p= <0.001)

CONCLUSION: The study results suggested that there is a significant positive correlation between candida carriage and caries, especially in children in the age group of 12 years.


Dental caries and associated factors in Ethiopia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Zewdu T, Abu D, Agajie M, Sahilu T. Environ Heal Prev Med 2021 261 [Internet]. 2021 Feb 12 [cited 2021 Jul 24];26(1):1–11. Available from:

Oral candidiasis: A disease of opportunity. Vila T, Sultan AS, Montelongo-Jauregui D, Jabra-Rizk MA. J Fungi. 2020;6(1):1–28.

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans. Vasconcelos LCDS, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MCC, Pereira MDS V, Higino JS, Peixoto MHP. Braz Dent J. 2006;17(3):223–7.

Oral microbiome: possible harbinger for children’s health. Xiao J, Fiscella KA, Gill SR. Int J Oral Sci. 2020;12(1):1–13.

streptococcal interactions in biofilm-associated oral diseases.pdf. Koo H, Andes D, Krysan D. 2018.

Oral candidal carriage in children with and without dental caries. Uygun-Can B, Kadir T, Akyüz S. Quintessence Int (Berl). 2007;38(1):45–9.

A comparison of oral rinse and imprint sampling techniques for the detection of yeast, coliform and Staphylococcus aureus carriage in the oral cavity. Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW, Lamey P ‐J, Ferguson MM. J Oral Pathol Med. 1986;15(7):386–8.

Comparison of Candida species isolated from children with and without early childhood caries : A descriptive cross ‑ sectional study. Ms B, Peedikayil FC, Mb G, Tp C, Soni K, Dhanesh N. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2017;296–300.

The Extent of Oral Fungal Flora in 353 Students and Possible Relationships with Dental Caries. Moalic E, Gestalin A, Quinio D, Gest PE, Zerilli A, Flohic AM Le. Caries Res [Internet]. 2001 Mar [cited 2021 Jul 26];35(2):149–55. Available from:

Correlation between Candida spp. and DMFT index in a rural population. Cortelli SC, Junqueira JC, Faria I da S, Ito CYK, Cortelli JR. Brazilian J Oral Sci. 2006;5(17):1007–11.

Prevalence of candida albicans in oral cavities and root canals of children. Akdeniz BG, Koparal E, Şen BH, Ateş M, Denizci AA. J Dent Child. 2002;69(3):289–92.

Synergism of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Reinforces Biofilm Maturation and Acidogenicity in Saliva: An In Vitro Study. Kim H-E, Liu Y, Dhall A, Bawazir M, Koo H, Hwang G. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020 Feb;10.

Candida biome of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and its cariogenic virulence traits. Fakhruddin KS, Samaranayake LP, Egusa H, Ngo HC, Panduwawala C, Venkatachalam T, et al. 2020 Jan;12(1).

Association of Streptococcus Mutans, Candida Albicans and Oral Health Practices with Activity Status of Caries Lesions Among 5-Year-Old Children with Early Childhood Caries. Sridhar S, Baranya /, Suprabha S, Shenoy R, Suman E, Rao A. Oral Heal Prev Dent. 2020;18:911–9.

Oral candidal carriage and its association with dental carious lesions in asymptomatic adults: a cross-sectional study from the UAE. Al-Amad SH, Rahman B, Khalifa N, Awad MA. BMC Oral Heal 2021 211. 2021 Apr;21(1):1–6.






Infancy & Adolescence