Summary of the IADR Cariology Research, Craniofacial Biology, and Mineralized Tissue Groups Symposium, Iguaçu Falls, Brazil, June 2012: Gene-environment Interactions and Epigenetics in Oral Diseases: Enamel Formation and its Clinical Impact on Tooth Defects, Caries, and Erosion


  • Adriana Modesto University of Pittsburgh, School of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
  • Ophir Klein University of California, School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA
  • Livia M.A. Tenuta University of Campinas, Piracicaba Dental School, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
  • Raquel F. Gerlach University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
  • Alexandre R. Vieira University of Pittsburgh, School of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA



Characteristics of enamel may influence or modulate individual susceptibility to caries and erosion. These characteristics are defined during development, which is under strict genetic control, but can easily be modified in many ways by environmental factors. In the symposium, translational aspects of embryology, biochemistry, and genetics of amelogenesis were presented. The symposium provided unique insight into how basic sciences integrate with clinically relevant problems. The need for improved understanding of risks at the individual level, taking into consideration both environmental exposures and genetic background, was presented. The symposium was divided into four stepwise and interconnected topics as follows:  1) The Many Faces of Enamel Development; 2) Enamel Pathogenesis: Biochemistry Lessons; 3) Environmental Factors on Enamel Formation; and, 4) Genetic Variation in Enamel Formation Genes.






Mechanisms of Oral Disease