The effectiveness of Turmeric gel in the healing of donor site for Free Gingival Graft




Curcumin, Free gingival graft, periodontal dressing, donor site


BACKGROUND: Preparation of turmeric extract gel with a concentration of 10% and comparing it with non-eugenol gingival dressing (Coe-PakTM) in the healing and re-epithelialization of palatal donor site after free gingival graft, and reduction of postoperative pain.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on twenty-two patients with lack of attached gingival tissue for various reasons and received soft tissue augmentation via free gingival grafts. Participants were randomly divided into two equal groups: group I (test) was treated with 10% turmeric gel while group II (control) was treated with (Coe-PakTM). Both pain level index which assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Analgesic consumption index were recorded for 7 days after surgery. The healing index, the color match index, and the re-epithelialization index were assessed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Finally, wound size index was measured via periodontal Probe at baseline and days 7, 14, 21, 28, and after 2 months.

RESULTS: Group I showed significant pain reduction measured by VAS and analgesic consumption on day 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (p<0.05) with no significant difference on the first two days (p>0.05). Group I demonstrated significant acceleration in the initial healing process during the 1st week (p=0.002) and 2nd week (p=0.01) with no significant difference between both groups in the 3rd and 4th weeks (p>0.05). Group I showed statistically higher VAS for the color match on day 7, 14, 21, and 28. No statistical difference was noted between the groups after two months. There was no statistical difference between groups I and II in the re-epithelialization and wound size index at any of the follow-up periods (p>0.05).

CONCLUSION: 10% turmeric extract gel showed relief of post-operative pain, acceleration of the healing process, and better outcomes in terms of the color match for the palatal wound after free gingival grafting procedure comparing to the Coe-PakTM periodontal dressing.

KEYWORDS: Curcumin; Free gingival graft; periodontal dressing; donor site 

Author Biographies

Zuhir Alasfar, Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, Syria

Department of Periodontology

Rowaida Saymeh, Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, Syria

Department of Periodontology

Mays Khazem, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damascus University, Syria

Department of Pharmacognosy


Surgical techniques to increase the apicocoronal dimension of the attached gingiva: a 1-year comparison between the free gingival graft and the modified apically repositioned flap. Carnio, J., P.M. Camargo, and P.Q. Pirih. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, 2015. 35(4): p. 571-8.

Clinical and histological evaluation of two dressing materials in the healing of palatal wounds. Shanmugam, M., et al. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 2010. 14(4): p. 241.

Free transplantation of gingival propria. Bjorn, H. Odontol Revy, 1963. 14: p. 323.

Dimensional changes in free gingival grafts: scalpel versus Er: YAG laser—a preliminary study. Türer, Ç.C., et al. Lasers in medical science, 2015. 30(2): p. 543-548.

Root coverage grafting for regeneration and aesthetics. MILLER JR, P.D. Periodontology 2000, 1993. 1(1): p. 118-127.

Root coverage using the free soft tissue autograft following citric acid application. III. A successful and predictalbe procedure in areas of deep-wide recession. Miller Jr, P. Int. J. Periodont. Rest. Dent, 1985. 5: p. 14-36.

Postoperative complications following gingival augmentation procedures. Griffin, T.J., et al. Journal of periodontology, 2006. 77(12): p. 2070-2079.

Effect of Propolis Extract in Combination with Eugenol-Free Dressing (Coe-PakTM) on Pain and Wound Healing after Crown-Lengthening: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Askari, M., et al. Journal of Dentistry, 2017. 18(3): p. 173.

Comparison of effect of curcumin gel and noneugenol periodontal dressing in tissue response, early wound healing, and pain assessment following periodontal flap surgery in chronic periodontitis patients. Meghana, M.V.S., et al. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 2020. 24(1): p. 54.

Curcumin: Biological, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and analytical aspects. Kotha, R.R. and D.L. Luthria. Molecules, 2019. 24(16): p. 2930.

Safety and efficacy of turmeric extract, turmeric oil, turmeric oleoresin and turmeric tincture from Curcuma longa L. rhizome when used as sensory additives in feed for all animal species. Additives, E.P.o., et al. EFSA Journal, 2020. 18(6): p. e06146.

Therapeutic effects of turmeric in several diseases: An overview. Hay, E., et al. Chemico-biological interactions, 2019. 310: p. 108729.

Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Anand, P., et al. Molecular pharmaceutics, 2007. 4(6): p. 807-818.

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances. Soleimani, V., A. Sahebkar, and H. Hosseinzadeh. Phytotherapy Research, 2018. 32(6): p. 985-995.

"Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot clinical trial of curcumin in patients with Alzheimer disease." Baum, Larry, et al. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 28.1 (2008): 110-113.

Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Organization, W.H. Vol. 68. 2008: World Health Organization.

Efficacy of Curcumin as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in Chronic Periodontitis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Raghava, K.V., et al. The journal of contemporary dental practice, 2019. 20(7): p. 842-846.

Antimicrobial activity of Curcuma longa L. extract on periodontal pathogens. Jalaluddin, M., et al. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 2019. 11(Suppl 2): p. S203.

Curcumin, a turmeric extract, for oral lichen planus: A systematic review. White, C.M., K. Chamberlin, and E. Eisenberg. Oral diseases, 2019. 25(3): p. 720-725.

The clinical evaluation of the effects of low-level laser therapy on the donor and recipient sites of the free gingival graft: a case series. Lafzi, A., et al. Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, 2019. 10(4): p. 355.

Patient morbidity and root coverage outcome after subepithelial connective tissue and de‐epithelialized grafts: a comparative randomized‐controlled clinical trial. Zucchelli, G., et al. Journal of clinical periodontology, 2010. 37(8): p. 728-738.

The clinical evaluation of platelet-rich plasma on free gingival graft's donor site wound healing. Samani, M.K., et al. European Journal of Dentistry, 2017. 11(04): p. 447-454.

Effect of topically applied hyaluronic acid on pain and palatal epithelial wound healing: An examiner‐masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Yıldırım, S., et al. Journal of periodontology, 2018. 89(1): p. 36-45.

Toluidine blue: A review of its chemistry and clinical utility. Sridharan, G. and A.A. Shankar. Journal of oral and maxillofacial pathology: JOMFP, 2012. 16(2): p. 251.

Contents: MEASURE: A proposed assessment framework for developing best practice recommendations for wound assessment. Keast, D.H., et al. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2004. 12: p. s1-s17.

Effect of A-PRF application on palatal wound healing after free gingival graft harvesting: a prospective randomized study. Sousa, F., et al. European Journal of Dentistry, 2020. 14(01): p. 063-069.

Effects of laser photobiomodulation and ozone therapy on palatal epithelial wound healing and patient morbidity. Isler, S.C., et al. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 2018. 36(11): p. 571-580.

Clinical Comparison of MEBO and Hyaluronic Acid Gel in the Management of Pain after Free Gingival Graft Harvesting: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Hassan, A., et al. International Journal of Dentistry, 2021. 2021.

Curcumin as a wound healing agent. Akbik, D., et al. Life sciences, 2014. 116(1): p. 1-7.

Efficacy of turmeric extracts and curcumin for alleviating the symptoms of joint arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Daily, J.W., M. Yang, and S. Park. Journal of medicinal food, 2016. 19(8): p. 717-729.

Post–Operative complications of periodontal surgery. Kirmani, M., et al. Int J Contemp Med Res, 2016. 3: p. 1285-6.

Periodontal soft tissue non–root coverage procedures: A consensus report from the AAP Regeneration Workshop. Scheyer, E.T., et al. Journal of periodontology, 2015. 86: p. S73-S76.

Curcumin treatment attenuates pain and enhances functional recovery after incision. Sahbaie, P., et al. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2014. 118(6): p. 1336-1344.

Does COX2-dependent PGE2 play a role in neuropathic pain? Ma, W. and R. Quirion. Neuroscience letters, 2008. 437(3): p. 165-169.

Analgesic efficacy and safety of curcuminoids in clinical practice: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sahebkar, A. and Y. Henrotin. Pain medicine, 2016. 17(6): p. 1192-1202.

Concordance among different pain scales in patients with dental pain. dos Santos Calderon, P., et al. Journal of orofacial pain, 2012. 26(2): p. 126.

Curcumin promotes collagen type I, keratinocyte growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor receptor expressions in the in vitro wound healing model of human gingival fibroblasts. Rujirachotiwat, A. and S. Suttamanatwong. European Journal of Dentistry, 2021. 15(01): p. 063-070.

The antioxidant effect of curcumin and rutin on oxidative stress biomarkers in experimentally induced periodontitis in hyperglycemic Wistar rats. Iova, G.M., et al. Molecules, 2021. 26(5): p. 1332.

Clinical comparison of platelet‐rich fibrin and a gelatin sponge in the management of palatal wounds after epithelialized free gingival graft harvest: A randomized clinical trial. Femminella, B., et al. Journal of periodontology, 2016. 87(2): p. 103-113.

Clinical study of laser biomodulation (650λ) after free gingival grafts. Vieira, J., et al. J Oral Laser Appl, 2010. 10: p. 159-63.

A review of therapeutic potentials of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its active constituent, curcumin, on inflammatory disorders, pain, and their related patents. Razavi, B.M., M. Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, and H. Hosseinzadeh. Phytotherapy Research, 2021. 35(12): p. 6489-6513.

Hydrotropic extraction of curcuminoids from turmeric. Dandekar DV, Gaikar V. Separation science and technology. 2003;38(5):1185-1215.

Extraction and purification of curcuminoids from Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Kulkarni S, Maske K, Budre M, Mahajan R. International Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology. 2012;1(2):81-84.






Development of Craniofacial Structures